## Dynamics of a colloidal particle driven by continuous time-delayed feedback

Miranda C R Bell-Davies, Arran Curran, Yanyan Liu, and Roel P A Dullens

Phys. Rev. E 2023 **107** 064601

We perform feedback experiments and simulations in which a colloidal dumbbell particle, acting as a particle on a ring, is followed by a repulsive optical trap controlled by a continuous-time-delayed feedback protocol. The dynamics are described by a persistent random walk similarly to that of an active Brownian particle, with a transition from predominantly diffusive to driven behavior at a critical delay time. We model the dynamics in the short and long delay regimes using stochastic delay differential equations and derive a condition for stable driven motion. We study the stochastic thermodynamic properties of the system, finding that the maximum work done by the trap coincides with a local minimum in the mutual information between the trap and the particle position at the onset of stable driven dynamics.